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Now, if someone's got a fracture to the arm, there are commercial splints that are available. This is what they call a SAM splint. What it is aluminium covered in a foam. What you can do with this is just unravel it. You can leave maybe, in this example, a point where the person can grip onto, and then mould that round your arm. You don't want to be moulding it around their arm because if they've got a broken arm, the last thing they want you doing is pushing onto it. Mold it roughly where you need it and then just take their arm. Just pop it in. Just hold that there, and you can make any smaller adjustments to them. And then just pop some tape around to actually hold it in position. What this will do is it will stop the whole arm and the wrist actually from moving.
Another type of splint is the pneumatic splint. This works in a slightly different way. What we've got here is a plastic tube with a zip in it. Just pop your arm straight in. You'd need to, if someone has broken their arm, is just pop that in. This is what they call a full-arm splint. There's also a half-arm splint, so if someone had just broken their lower arm, that would be absolutely fine. But this one, it just shows you the example of the whole arm. What you've got on here is a valve, and put that in position to supporting it to blow in. Once you've blown in it, you just push onto the end and then it has actually held the whole arm in a nice stable position. With it on the full arm, if you had to put this into a sling, you'd need to be able to support it. But if they're sat down, they can just rest it on a table. The other advantage of this type of thing is if there is any expansion, it will hold it in place, or if you need to relieve any pressure, because by doing a capillary refill, you find that the blood supply is going to be reduced, you can just let a little bit of air out. When they get to the other end and they need this removed, it's very easy. You just take the air out, undo the zip, and then the whole arm is left nice and flat.
Now, in most first aid kits, you may not have that type of equipment. Maybe if you're working in the sports area or your higher risk you might have commercial splints. But if you haven't got a commercial splint, a magazine or a newspaper, something like that would be absolutely fine. Or you can do with this. You just fold up a magazine, and you're just placing the arm in. Just lift your arm up. You can pop the arm in place so we can keep it past the wrist. If we're looking at a break to the middle of the arm here, we're going below the elbow, over the wrist; it stops the actual wrist from moving, which will because of pain. Bend that round. Just squeeze the top there. Then we can just hold that in place by using this micropore tape. With the tape in place, if we needed to, if there was a lot of swelling, and again by using the capillary refill, if we found that there were blood supply restrictions, we can quite simply just cut this tape and release the pressure. And then if you want to, you can then reapply it.
Once the arm has been put in this splint, we can then move it across the chest. Just hold that in position. And then we can apply the triangular bandage. This one, the 90-degree corner by the elbow, and we're going underneath the arm. Tie it off at the back and then just make sure that the arms fully supported. And again, you can do the capillary refill check. What this is doing is it's holding the arm in a rested position. It can't move. We can monitor it for swelling and it means that the person can actually walk to the emergency medical services.